Thank you to the Eastern Cape Chair: Mr Etienne Mouton, for making this great session possible!

TALK ABSTRACT  Small water treatment plants are defined as water treatment systems that have to be installed in areas which are not adequately serviced and do not normally fall within the confines of urban areas. They are therefore mostly used in rural and peri-urban areas and include chlorination plants for water supplies from boreholes and springs, small treatment systems for rural communities, treatment plants of small municipalities and treatment plants for establishments such as rural hospitals, schools, clinics, forestry stations, etc. Most of these applications require small plants of less than 2.5 ML/d (although plants of up to 25 ML/d may sometimes also fall into this category).
The decision-maker selecting one of these small water treatment plants has a great number of local and international system designs to choose from. Especially in the case of novel and emerging systems, very little may be known of these systems in terms of cost, efficiency and the applicability to the intended application. Supplier information may be sketchy, or promising new technologies have not yet been fully evaluated under South African conditions. Socio-economic factors are also very important and should be taken into account in the selection of small water treatment systems in order to ensure sustainability.

Although some evaluation of a selected number of small water treatment plants has taken place under previous WRC projects (WRC Report No 450/1/97: Package water treatment plant selection, and WRC Report No 828/1/01: Field evaluation of alternative disinfection technologies  for  small  water  supply  technologies),  a  number  of  other  small  water treatment plants, available on the international market, have not yet been assessed in any way for possible (beneficial) application in South Africa. This study is therefore seen as complementing existing guidelines in providing assistance in the selection and operation of specific small water treatment systems being marketed for the treatment of potable water for small communities.

A number of local and international studies have shown that the selection of the correct water treatment system is but a first step in ensuring a sustainable supply of potable water to small communities. Following of the correct operational and maintenance procedures is of even greater importance for ensuring sustainability of water supply.   Although most suppliers of small water treatment systems provide their clients with some operational and maintenance  guidelines,  these  may  not  be  exhaustive,  or  certain  important  generic aspects may not be covered. Information on operation and maintenance aspects will be of significant value to the owners and operators of such small water treatment systems.

ABOUT THE SPEAKER  Christian D Swartz is a consulting water utlization engineer specializing in drinking water treatment and water supply projects, and water reclamation and reuse. He holds degrees in Civil Engineering and a Masters in Water Utilization Engineering from the University of Pretoria. He is a registered professional engineer and previously worked at the CSIR as senior research engineer and project manager on numerous projects in the drinking water treatment field. He started his own private consulting engineering practice, Chris Swartz Water Utilization Engineers, in 1991 in Mossel Bay, and later also opened an office in Durbanville, Cape Town. Chris Swartz has more than 28 years’ experience in the water industry. Areas of expertise include project management on water supply projects, evaluation of water treatment technologies, evaluation of water and wastewater treatment plants, water reuse and desalination schemes, risk assessment and risk management, rural water supply, and lots more.

Chris, your talk just again highlighted the need for knowledge sharing and thank you for sharing so freely. This insightful, topical talk is packed with information and we all appreciate your time with us!


WRC Report TT319-07 (4.81 MB)Download
Presenter's Talk: Chris-Swartz-GWD-Presentation-11-Sept-2020 (9.42 MB)Download

Recording Available:


Connan Hempel (SRK Consulting) Q - via registration form: How would these systems deal with issues like elevated Arsenic & Fluoride?

Melissa Lintnaar-Strauss (DWS) Q: Chris, how many commercial labs are available in SA to test for the EDC`s and pesticides and what are the costs of tests?

Greta Pegram (Private) Q: What are your thoughts and how do you recommend removing substances such as hormonal or prescriptive medications that are increasingly being found in waste water discharges?

Sizwe Mabilisa (Private) Q: Deep rural communities who usually get their drinking water from rivers usually boil the water before drinking. How effective is this most? what other cost effective solutions can they explore?

Maphuti Kwata (CGS) Q: Since the small rural communities are using underground water such as wells and boreholes as water supply for drinking purposes with regard to leakage of CO2 which might be stored /contaminate underground water . What are the technologies/mitigation measures that could be used to prevent /reduce the CO2 as the contaminants /leakages to the under groundwater?

Sumaya Israel (UWC) Q: Is your talk more related to municipal treatment? As small rural communities may require point of use type treatment methods (filtration systems within the household).

Sumaya Israel (UWC) Q: Would you recommend in situ or ex situ application of the methods outlined?



TALK ABSTRACT  It’s commonly accepted that climate change will be experienced though water, particularly in developing countries. Several studies relating to the impacts of climate change on surface water have been undertaken while very little research exists on the potential impacts on groundwater. Hence, this talk aimed to discuss some of the current research with respect to climate impacts on groundwater. Various methods are proposed for estimating climate change impacts on groundwater, such as using hypothetical scenarios of progressive drying to assess stream flow sensitivity to drought, using MODFLOW to investigate projected effects of climate change on groundwater or using scenarios to analyze impacts of climate change on aquifer recharge.

ABOUT THE SPEAKER Chris Moseki has over 20 years of experience in groundwater development and water resources management. He also served as a research manager at the Water Research Commission responsible for development of tools and systems for adaptation to climate change for about 6 years. Chris is currently a climate change specialist scientist at the Department of Water and Sanitation. His interest includes research in groundwater and climate change as well as seeking solutions to climate and water related problems in the public sector.
DR CHRIS MOSEKI is also a longstanding member of the GWD and is revered and highly regarded. He has been instrumental in establishing WRM and Climate Change as Agenda points in the water sector strategies being work-shopped since the late 1990's, and driving forth and carrying the torch since then...And a great person with a warm smile. We appreciate you Dr Chris & also for sharing your knowledge, experience and material with us!

Well done and Thank you to the GWD Gauteng Branch Chair Mr Kwazi Majola for making the sharing & learning opportunity through this excellent presentation possible.


Presenter's Talk: Website-opt_Groundwater-Climate-change-_state-of-research-Aug-2020-FINAL (5.65 MB)Download

Recording available


The following were discussed:

Kes Murray Q: With all the increases in GW use (and dependence) in recent years in RSA, as well as with the expected reductions in recharge from climate change in the future, what is DWS's role with regards to monitoring, managing and allocating the status of aquifer storage levels at a regional scale?

Victor Tibane Q: What are the differences between water stress and water scarcity, how is each event determined, and what are the possible technological advances for solutions?

Elsabe Swart, Department of Environment and Nature Conservation (DENC) Q_1: How do you distinguish between water extraction impacts and that of climate change?

Q_2: How do you distinguish between water extraction impacts and that of climate change?Are any of these studies being done in the Northern Cape province? Is monitoring of boreholes sufficient (especially in the Northern Cape as it is the most arid province where these impacts are expected to be most severe)?

Q_3: What communications go through to the National Minister - concern is specifically i.t.o. the pressure to extract more underground water as a source for water going forward in the country. Concerned about the feasibility overall, but again especially i.t.o. the arid Northern Cape?

Henk Coetzee Q: Chris, have you looked at Eddie van Wyk's work on recharge, which looked at recharge being strongly event-driven, especially in more arid areas?

Sonia Veltman Q: I'd like to add to Henk's question. What's the options for looking at event driven recharge, modelling these based on changes in expected higher rainnfall events and then takinng those numbers back to these models adding it as objects, instead of averaging. What we see in the field is rapid recharge during storm events, but lagged in time?

Comment by Mr Fanus Fourie: The issue around low rainfall vs high intensity rainfall event will average out. Eddie said that the duration of the rainfall event is very critical to allow recharge to happen. Quick and intense thunderstorm will not create recharge but runoff.

Sivashni Naicker Q_1: The areas highlighted within the Karoo that are high risk, are there any management interventions that can be included in planning that DWS can do, especially in the rural setting, whereby people are more vulnerable?

Q_2: Dr Moseki, should we add investigation of potential artificial recharge sites to our all towns/recon studies?

Comment by Dr Sumaya Israel: I agree with you Dr Moseki, monitoring and having reliable data is key to sustainable management and understanding of our hydrological and hydrogeological systems.

Nkadimeng Maletele (IUCMA) Q: Thank you very much for the lovely and educational presentation Dr Moseki, As new member in the groundwater studies family I would like to ask, after how many years is it effective to analyze groundwater quality and quantity data…And is the groundwater quality data important when quantifying the impacts of climate change on groundwater?

Thank you for your support in attending this Event.


Assessment of the impacts of climate variability on total water storage in the Orange-Senqu River Basin:  implications for groundwater resources management
by Dr Tales Carvalho-Resende

Well done and Thank you to the GWD Gauteng Branch Chair Mr Kwazi Majola for making this sharing & learning opportunity possible!

BACKGROUND TO THE TALK: Alongside the effects of climate change and anthropogenic factors, natural climate cycles have considerable impacts on the hydrologic cycle. In this study, we look at how global climatic oscillations cycles, like El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) affect total water storage and groundwater storage in the Orange-Senqu River Basin by analysing two large aquifers: the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System (STAS) shared between Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, and the Karoo Sedimentary Aquifer shared between Lesotho and South Africa. The findings could help decision-makers prepare more effective climate-change adaptation plans at both national and transboundary levels.

ABOUT THE PRESENTER: Tales Carvalho-Resende has more than 7 years of experience in the development and management of international cooperation projects on environmental issues, climate change and transboundary waters. He worked at the UNESCO Intergovernmental Hydrological Programme (IHP) where he coordinated and supported research and capacity-building activities on groundwater and climate change, water diplomacy, conflict resolution, and international water law that lead to the establishment of the first arrangements for the governance of a transboundary aquifer in Southern Africa (Stampriet Aquifer in 2017 – Botswana, Namibia and South Africa) and Central America (Ocotepeque-Citala Aquifer in 2019 – El Salvador and Honduras). He is Brazilian, PhD, Earth Scientist and holds an MA in International Affairs and LLM in Climate Change Law and Policy.

We appreciate his excellent presentation and the encouragement by Dr Tales for sharing of the materials.

In vain have you
acquired knowledge
if you have not
imparted it to others.

Deuteronomy Rabbah

Tales-Talk_GWD-Presentation-14-Aug_GWD_SouthAfrica [.pdf 948kb]Download

Q & A Session

(Live questions and responses to these questions are transcribed and might contain capture errors. We will continue with the quality check and update the post accordingly.)

Q: Thanks Tales for the wonderful presentation. It is always encouraging to see the application of GRACE derived data particularly in Southern Africa given that GRACE is underrepresented. I would like to find out what was the time mean that was used to estimate the total water storage changes?

Tales: To give you further information about the GRACE satellite. The GRACE data have to be considered very careful. Why? Because it provides an overview on a large scale and not at local level. GRACE mainly ‘sees’ the fluctuations of shallow aquifers but not deep aquifers. Most of the time this is enough because most of the groundwater abstraction occurs from shallow aquifers. GRACE has been out in the skies since 2002. With the model we were able to add 20 more years going back to 1980 - which is fantastic. So this is what we tried to do, go back to the past to reconstruct these fluctuations.

Q: The applicability of GRACE on large aquifers (such as the Stampriet) you mentioned. So how is the applicability of GRACE on the smaller aquifers; and also the applicability of GRACE on a national scale for instance if you want to do it for the whole country total water storage estimations and what is the impacts on the water storage?

Tales: One of the aims of this study was to have a first picture of the correlations between groundwater and climate change at a large scale because there have been very few studies on that particularly in Africa. So, I would say a first step is to have a general big picture at large scale (i.e. the same study can be replicated at Southern Africa level) and then once we have that first picture, we can already identify some correlations. In Southern Africa, we can see that there is already an El Nino correlation and then you go into detail and further studies can be done. So, I can say that this study can easily be replicated at a large scale in other regions/ country level but is just to give a first ‘snapshot’ of the situation.. Then you follow with further studies at local level.

Q: Is there any reason why you chose this study area?

Tales: Well, we have chosen this area because we were working with the support of UNESCO in that region. We had support to assess these impacts of climate variability in the Stampriet aquifer and then we said ok let us see what is also happening in the Karoo Sedimentary aquifers so as to have a broad picture of groundwater dynamics in the Orange-Sengu Basin. We have also applied the same methodology of other regions of the world and the results were quite interesting.

Q:  Did you fit groundwater level data with the modelled results?  If so, how good was the model fit in validation?

Tales: If you have a look to slide 17. The answer is yes. We validated the model both in the GRACE (starting from 2002 until now) and the groundwater level data time-frame. Again, the groundwater level data might not have been representative of all of the basin but the very few that we could collect and were available, fitted very well and we felt confident to go further with these correlation of climate indices.

Q: Kwazi spoke about the scale with regards to applying GRACE data to a small scale. I personally tried that and the results were very coarse but looking at other studies, myself and others actually found that at scales greater than 150,000 km2 that is when you can start to see and get better results. We actually did not find absolute values in terms of values of total water storage but rather just the anomalies. Also using the soil moisture data and abstracting it from the GRACE the total storage data that actually gave us some insight into what is happening to groundwater level. So far we have not found or could use any long term data that is representative of areas less than the 150,000 km2 in SA and I think it is also the same issues that you faced when doing your study in the Stampriet. So I am not sure if you or somebody in your team have found some way to downscale so that can maybe be able to apply GRACE at a more local scale?

Tales: Yes, unfortunately for the time being we have not been able to go deeper into local scale. Exactly one of the challenging issues are the ones that you mention. So as you know groundwater fluctuates differently from one borehole to another, so a borehole that is only a few km away can have a different dynamic than another, and what we would need -I would say- to really make sure this model is robust is to have a strong groundwater level monitoring network at work in which you would allow you to have the average of all the groundwater level data. What GRACE does offer is usually an average of what is happening in the 150,000 km2 to give you one number. So that is the challenging issue. We did apply the same model in other aquifers that have a very good monitoring network mainly in the Unites States, and it worked very well. But as I said – this is only to show you what can happen at large scale.

Q: Is it possible to simulate the longer time effects of the Milankovitch cycles (100,000 year cycles) which effects of changes in Earth’s position relative to the Sun and are a strong driver of Earth’s long-term climate, and are responsible for triggering the beginning and end of glaciation periods (Ice Ages)

Tales: This is quite challenging as we don’t have good and reliable data on rainfall and evapotranspiration at long term to extend the model. The current version of the model starts at 1980 because our data on evapotranspiration starts by then.

Q:  How long after the El Nino/La Nina has started do you start to see the impacts on the groundwater storage changes or was it not part of the study?

Tales: We could see here that it was highly responsive so only a couple of months afterwards we could already see the impacts. Again this is only for shallow aquifers but this is very important information in the sense that it is highly responsive. So if you know there is a drought coming you will have an impact very soon after and this is the reason why it is really important to really be in touch and discuss with the climate people e.g. the different meteorological agencies and so on, because if you can have a good forecast of what happens with the rainfall patterns then you can have a good forecast also for groundwater. In this case we have seen that the aquifers are highly responsive to rainfall patterns which are intrinsically linked with climate indices.

Q:  What is your depth of "shallow" aquifers?

Tales: By shallow aquifers we mean here unconfined aquifer and the water table level that we could get here from the different chronicles were usually a couple of meters (approx. 10-20).

Q: What was the effect of human abstractions? How were these included in the model?

Tales: This is an interesting question as yes, it is difficult to get data on abstraction. This model here did not consider human abstractions but what we could see here and what we could see in other studies is that if you have a dry period it means that abstraction increases and the trend decreases. So in our study we talk about trends not numbers. The results of the model are shown in a normalized scale so abstraction can be “implicitly” considered because of that. It is very difficult to give you numbers on abstraction because it is not always very reliable data, so keep in mind the trends. The takeaway message here is that usually when you have a decreasing trend it also mean that you have more abstraction this means that the trend goes even down.

Q: The groundwater system seems to be more sensitive to human activities than climatic changes. Is long term still relevant or urgent? Long-term? 200 years or so

Tales: It is very difficult to separate what is the human component and what is the climatic component because both are together. When it comes to groundwater – if you have a drought – this means that you will abstract more so both are intrinsically linked. That is why it is very difficult to disaggregate both of them. In the long term, this is still relevant, because the information can help us to better set up some MAR schemes. For instance, we could see a AMO positive phase (current one since mid 1990s) could bring water storage down, and then once this cycle could flip to another phase we could have some better days. So this can already give us some time of what can happen and how we can prepare in the long term.  

Q: Presumably the water level measurements were taken from boreholes, which normally would be associated with human abstraction?

Tales: Yes. We tried to collect the longest and most continuous water level chronicles. Unfortunately, there are very few.

Please contact Mr Kwazi Majola (Branch Chair GAU) for more information on this subject:


Well done and Thank you to the GWD Northern Branch for this excellent presentation by Dr Rainier Dennis!

Public domain borehole information in South Africa is generally stored in the National Groundwater Archive (NGA) and the Groundwater Resources Information Project (GRIP) databases of which both are centralized databases. The GRIP database is updated by the Department of Water and Sanitation, but only covers one of the nine provinces. The NGA on the other hand covers the entire country, however there is a backlog of borehole information that needs to be captured, and it has limited time series data.

The reason for the poor time series data is two-fold:
(i) groundwater monitoring is expensive due to the distributed nature of the resource (the NGA consists roughly of 280,000 boreholes over 1,225,986 km2) and
(ii) consultants tend not to upload data to the national databases as the data is seen as a competitive advantage.

During the recent drought experienced in the Western Cape Province (2015 to 2018), citizens of local communities took to social media, reporting on rainfall and groundwater levels within their communities. With the dams drying up people started targeting groundwater with the result of approximately 30,000 boreholes being drilled. This led to the development of a mobile app available to both citizens and groundwater professionals.  This app allows logging of borehole information via smart phones. One of the main challenges with populating databases is the verification of the data.

The mobile app introduces a type of block chain approach where all data is accepted, but marked as low confidence until verified by a trusted user. The vision for the app is a ‘live’ hydrocensus and even if only water levels are captured, it would improve groundwater management by applying data mining techniques for trend analysis.

Rainier Dennis (BSc IT, BEng Electric & Electronic, MSc Geohydrology, PhD Geohydrology) is a senior lecturer at the Centre for Water Sciences and Management, North-West University. He has more than 18 years’ experience in software development, hydrological and geohydrological investigations.

We appreciate the sharing of the materials and we trust that Dr Rainier will receive a lot of additional inquiries around this inspiring development.

R-Dennis_ObserverAppPresentation-1_opt (.pdf 2.33 MB) Download

Live Session Request - View only

The GWD hosted Talks during Covid-19. These sessions have been recorded and can be released for View only purposes.

Q & A Session

Ivo: Is the code open source? if so pointers please

Once the App is complete, the code will be handed to the WRC and eventually to the custodian of the final database to make sure that if there are changes or future development, they can work with the existing code. So yes, it will be open.

Erin: What is the data consumption like?

Quite a difficult one. I think the best way is what Rob Schapers have said and that is he will start to track data usage as soon as the pilot version goes live. If you are worried about consumption the best thing to do is, at the office, download the data for that specific area so that the base map tile will be cache to your phone together with the borehole data that is available for that area. You can then go offline with your device and your GPS positioning device will still work in the field. You can log all the information and once you get back to the office you can connect to your Wi-Fi or any device you use and it will be uploaded. We will do some benchmarks in terms of just normal run-of-the-mill operations.

Irene: Two questions: (1) Has the feasibility of linking this to water use licenses/registration been considered to populate the database. And (2), will there be a function to convert what3word coordinates to surveyed data for use by groundwater professionals?

The first question concerning water use licenses, no, we haven't considered this.  My guess would be if people would be using it they may see the applicability and we might get some more requests to add this type of functionality - it is a good idea. The second question, yes on the use of the what3words. It can convert either way – by the coordinate of the block or the what3words can take you to the center of the block but remember, since this is a GIS system all those boreholes that you see on your display already has its own latitude longitude built-in so, it is not really necessary to convert back from the what3words as the GIS already have a coordinate for each site.

Nico: Is there some security measures in place to prevent the public to be targeted, due to location and photo sharing. Some chap might be interested in high-jacking your pump and sell on the black-market, if your borehole is not properly secured.

Yes, obviously there are certain things and this is a very valid point. We’re also sitting with the POPI – the Protection of Personal Information Act so you can't publish owner’s details and so forth. That is something that we obviously need to take cognisance off and being aware of this for some time, we don't have a solution yet. You can obviously strip the GPS and location details from any image but if you have the phone and you’ve registered on the App., obviously you can see there is a borehole and it’s got a pump in it, so, yes that might be a concern.

Wilbè: Wouldn’t it be better to develop the apps natively? If the source code is available I could assist in writing a MAC desktop version if there are any mac users

At the end of the day what the App studio does, is when the QML (Qt Markup Language) is compiled it invokes the relevant c++ compiler for each target platform, so in essence what you end up on your phone is a native app. The only reason why we have used the Arc products is because we are making use of ArcGIS online and you can also run some analysis of the data from the ArcGIS online server and then eventually make that analysis also available to users. If you were to develop that from scratch it would be a massive undertaking.

Jorette: Great project! On some projects we used to overlay the NGA, WARMS and whatever data we could over Google Earth to assist with hydrocensus investigation in the field, but phone battery dies and doesn't always show your position in relation to the nearby boreholes. Have you had similar problems or lags?

I suppose this will depend on your specific device. In our testing we have not come across this, but to date we were only using an iPhoneX and a LG V20 in our testing. When you disable the data network on our app, assuming you have cached all the data for your study area, you will conserve power and lengthen your battery life. I am not sure if Google Earth provide the same functionality to save battery time. It is also worth mentioning that GPS accuracy on a mobile phone, only making use of GPS (no Wifi) out in the open can range from 1m to 5m. This accuracy can be increased if making use of external GPS antennas, but from a citizen science point of view we don’t expect users to do this. Some phones support high accuracy mode which is switched on in the Settings menu.

Please contact Dr Rainier Dennis or Prof Ingrid Dennis for more information on this subject: Prof Ingrid Dennis <>, Rainier Dennis <>


Groundwater is not private property, and the use of groundwater requires a water use licence, or a general authorization. This is imperative for most environmental impact assessments, requiring even ongoing monitoring for the foreseeable future.

The GWD together with the IAH-SA called together a group of dynamic ladies to present on their experiences and findings around this very relevant topic that came up a number of times during social media discussions and via email queries received. This event was opened by Mr Fanus Fourie, GWD National Chairperson, moderated by Prof Matthys Dippenaar (UP, current IAH-SA President) and Mr Julian Conrad (current IAH-SA Secretary and immediate past president of the IAH-SA).

" Welcome to all attendees to this very relevant topic we would like to address today. With more than 28,000 registered water users that are using groundwater on the DWS database (WARMS database) we can see that groundwater use is very important and its importance is only rising. The race is really on for everybody to take their fair share but with this there is a lot of challenges and frustration - not only on the applicant’s side but also on the groundwater specialists and the regulator side and that is precisely what we want to address today."
F Fourie
, GWD National Chair

Presenters and Topics

To license or not to license groundwater: let us answer that question - Melissa Lintnaar-Strauss, DWS
What's yours is mine, and what's mine is mine. Or is it? - Jodi Coetzee, GEOSS
How to authorise your water use: the process - Kate Cain, GCS Pty Ltd
The technical geohydrology report – and all that jazz - Preanna Naicker, GEOSS
Water use licensing: the in's and the out's - Elkerine Rossouw, BGCMA

Lintnaar-Strauss_-groundwater-seminar-July-2020-2page_opt (1.7MB)Download
Preanna-Naicker_The-Technical-Geohydrology-Report-Webinar2020_final-post_opt (3.25MB)Download


Any more queries? Please contact your relevant DWS Regional Office or CMA for clarification:

Thank you to all the Respondents to our QUESTIONNAIRE. This gave us great insight into the AUDIENCE PROFILE as well as the most relevant ISSUES & INFORMATION PROFILE. (Please note that these statistics are based on the Questionnaire responses only and do not reflect the overall status within the formal WULA process)

Herewith acknowledgment that through the efforts of Nicola Domoney and Megan Hugo from Indwe Environmental Consultants, we were able to pick up on a formula error on our attendee stats. Below the updated statistics noting adjustment of final attendee numbers from 183 to 225. Much appreciated!

During the event Q&A session, although with an extreme time constraint, Mr Julian Conrad was able to table some of the questions received to the panel. Herewith a brief summary of the responses. Please note that the live responses are just that, and will either be elucidated on or summerised with the formal feedback document.

Melissa pre-application meeting [TRANSCRIPTION]: Julian I just want to indicate the Department is fully up and running as far as license applications are concerned and officials are willing to go out do site visits if they have to. The officer working with you application will indicate and it also depends on the type of application you dealing with e.g. if it is a license application and its complicated, a pre-application meeting will definitely be asked for; for a simple application that we know exactly what is asked for and are sure about water uses you want to apply for, you will be guided by the officer working on you application.
We are receiving requests throughout the period and we are assessing applications.

Elkerine on Schedule 1 use [TRANSCRIPTION]: Schedule 1 is a small volume for household use, for a small garden. A small garden qualifies when it is not used for commercial use. If you have your own fruit trees in your backyard, it is still seen as a small garden. So what is a volumetric limit? From the BGCMA’s point of view we look at the lowest volume that can be allocated from within a General Authorisation (GA) and that is 2000 m3 per/annum and for anything more than that we request a General Authorization application as such.
In terms of of the multiple households from a single borehole on one property: Yes, it is still Schedule 1 but if you are going to use that water for drinking water then you must make sure that you are registered with your water services provider (WSP) which is normally your local municipality / district municipality (as a WSP and not an authority). There is bylaws that actually specifically talks to that, so if you are doing that, you should also speak to your municipality.   

Melissa on historical borehole use [TRANSCRIPTION]: This could fall under the ‘existing lawful use’ and in terms of the existing lawful use there is a process the Department is currently embarking on and it is called the Validation and Verification process where we actually have to check whether the water use is lawful. It has been going on across the country but you can contact your Regional Office or CMA to assist you with this specific issue if you are unsure.

Elkerine Rossouw on Timeframes [TRANSCRIPTION]: Yes, there is an alignment between the NEMA and the National Water Act and that is why the timeframe is for about 300 days. I can’t really speak to the presidents’ address about the three months except that if it is three months from the day that you started the application to having a complete license on your table and after all the studies had been done, it is possible. But with so many specialists required yes, an Integrated WULA might take longer than the 300 days that is why it’s always important to have a good discussion with your assessor beforehand, before embarking on a license especially for an integrated water use license application.

Thank you for attending this event!
Attendees that REGISTERED and noted their attendance during the event (via the CHAT window) AND selected the questionnaire option: "will request an attendance proof" - were issued with Attendance/ CPD Certificates.
Feel free to contact us should you not have received, via
Regards, GWD EXCO


The Borehole Water Journal, Article by the late GWD Honorary Member Mr Ernst Bertram


Guide to e-WULAAS

The GWD hosted Talks during Covid-19. These sessions have been recorded and can be released for View only purposes.

National Chairperson: Mr Fanus Fourie
Vice-Chairperson: Ms Nicolette Vermaak
National Treasurer: Mr Yazeed van Wyk
National Secretariat: Dr Jaco Nel
National Coordinator: Ms Elanda Schaffner

Please contact this Committee via [email protected]

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